Martyna J. Grabowska, James Steeves, Julius Alpay, Matthew Van De Poll, Deniz Ertekin, and Bruno van Swinderen

Visual decision making in animals is influenced by innate preferences as well as experience. Interaction between hard-wired responses and changing motivational states determines whether a visual stimulus is attractive, aversive or neutral. It is, however, difficult to separate the relative contribution of nature versus nurture in experimental paradigms, especially for more complex visual parameters such as the shape of objects. We used a closed-loop virtual reality paradigm for walking Drosophila to uncover innate visual preferences for the shape and size of objects, in a recursive choice scenario allowing the flies to reveal their visual preferences over time. We found that Drosophila melanogaster display a robust attraction/repulsion profile for a range of object sizes in this paradigm, and that this visual preference profile remains evident under a variety of conditions and persists into old age. We also demonstrate a level of flexibility in this behavior: innate repulsion to certain objects could be transiently overridden if these were novel, although this effect was only evident in younger flies. Finally, we show that a neuromodulatory circuit in the fly brain, Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF), can be recruited to guide visual decision making. Optogenetic activation of dNPF-expressing neurons converted a visually repulsive object into a more attractive object. This suggests that dNPF activity in the Drosophila brain guides ongoing visual choices, to override innate preferences and thereby provide a necessary level of behavioral flexibility in visual decision making.

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