Development of Inflammatory Immune Response-Related Drugs Based on G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Nov 21;51(2):729-745
Authors: Han C, Li Y, Wang Y, Cui D, Luo T, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Wei W
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), as a vital Ser/Thr kinase, is an important regulatory protein in the inflammatory immune response (IIR) by maintaining the balance between the function of inflammatory immune cells and non-conventional inflammatory immune cells and regulating inflammatory immune cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine secretion, and the signaling associated with endothelial function. However, the imbalance of GRK2 expression and activity plays an important role in the development of IIR-related diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid cancer, multiple sclerosis, and liver cancer. Small molecule GRK2 inhibitors, including balanol, Takeda inhibitors, paroxetine and derivatives, M119 and gallein, peptides, RNA aptamers, Raf kinase inhibitory protein, and microRNAs, that can directly inhibit GRK2 kinase activity have been identified by different strategies. This review discusses recent progress in one of the hallmark molecular abnormalities of GRK2 in IIR-related diseases and explores the soft regulation of IIR by innovative drugs reducing the excessive activity of GRK2 to basal levels, without damaging normal physiological function, to ameliorate inflammatory disorders.
PMID: 30463058 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]