Protective stabilization of mitochondrial permeability transition and mitochondrial oxidation during mitochondrial Ca2+ stress by melatonin’s cascade metabolites C3-OHM and AFMK in RBA1 astrocytes.
J Pineal Res. 2018 Nov 11;:e12538
Authors: Jou MJ, Peng TI, Reiter RJ
Cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin (C3-OHM) and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) are two major cascade metabolites of melatonin. We previously showed melatonin provides multiple levels of mitochondria-targeted protection beyond as a mitochondrial antioxidant during ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (mCa2+ ) stress in RBA1 astrocytes. Using non-invasive laser scanning fluorescence coupled time-lapse digital imaging microscopy, this study investigated whether C3-OHM and AFMK also provide mitochondrial levels of protection during ionomycin-induced mCa2+ stress in RBA1 astrocytes. Interestingly, precise temporal and spatial dynamic live mitochondrial images revealed that C3-OHM and AFMK prevented specifically mCa2+ -mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) formation and hence mROS-mediated depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm ) and permanent lethal opening of the MPT (p-MPT). The antioxidative effects of AFMK, however, was less potent than that of C3-OHM. Whether C3-OHM and AFMK targeted directly the MPT was investigated under a condition of “oxidation free-Ca2+ stress” using a classic antioxidant vitamin E to removed mCa2+ -mediated mROS stress and the potential antioxidative effects of C3-OHM and AFMK. Intriguingly, two compounds still effectively postponed “oxidation free-Ca2+ stress”-mediated depolarization of △Ψm and p-MPT. Measurements using a MPT pore specific indicator Calcein further identified that C3-OHM and AFMK, rather than inhibiting, stabilized the MPT in its transient protective opening mode (t-MPT), a critical mechanism to reduce overloaded mROS and mCa2+ . These multiple layers of mitochondrial protection provided by C3-OHM and AFMK thus crucially allow melatonin to extend its metabolic cascades of mitochondrial protection during mROS- and mCa2+ -mediated MPT-associated apoptotic stresses and may provide therapeutic benefits against astrocyte-mediated neurodegeneration in the CNS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 30415481 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]