This study aimed to assess the maternal anthropometric parameters of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers as well as to assess the neonatal anthropometric parameters of premature infants in relation to maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height and mid-upper-arm circumference), HIV status and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Study participants included HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers who gave birth to premature infants. All HIV-infected mothers received ART. The incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) among premature infants was high. Maternal anthropometric parameters, HIV status and ART exposure showed no association with IUGR in this study. Sufficient maternal ART exposure may positively influence head circumference at birth, which might determine the neurodevelopmental outcome of these infants.