Background and Purpose—Rho-kinase, an effector of RhoA, is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in circulating blood cells. However, the role of RhoA/Rho-kinase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not yet been studied in relation to the severity of this disease. Therefore, we analyzed the expression and activity of RhoA as a possible biomarker in aSAH.Methods—Twenty-four patients with aSAH and 15 healthy subjects were examined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected, and RhoA activity and expression were determined by RhoA activation assay kit (G-LISA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, respectively. The severity of aSAH was determined from the World Federation of Neurological Surgeon scale, and vasospasm was evaluated using clinical symptoms, arteriography, and sonography.Results—RhoA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients on days 0, 2, and 4 after aSAH versus healthy subjects (P=0.036, 0.010, and 0.018, respectively, by U Mann–Whitney analysis). There was a significant correlation between RhoA expression and injury severity on days 2 and 4 (Spearman test, day 2: r=0.682, n=14, P=0.007; day 4: r=0.721, n=14, P=0.004). No significant correlation was observed on day 0 (day 0: r=0.131, n=6, P=0.805). Active RhoA was not significantly different in patients and healthy subjects on days 0, 2, and 4 (P=0.243, 0.222, and 0.600, respectively) nor did it increase significantly on days 0 and 2 in patients with vasospasm versus patients without vasospasm (P=0.064 and 0.519, respectively). In contrast, active RhoA was significantly higher on day 4 in patients who developed vasospasm versus patients without vasospasm (P=0.028).Conclusions—Our preliminary results indicate that RhoA expression and activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells might be related with aSAH severity and cerebral vasospasm. RhoA is a potential biomarker of the risks associated with aSAH.